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Jeinimeni River valley, CH. Laguna del Laja sub-basin, C. Study site in Sierra Baguales, Magallanes, Chile. See specific references for the locations in the text. Apart from Gran Barranca, currently known Colhuehuapian faunas are almost totally restricted to scattered localities in the northern half of Patagonia i. However, different scholars have pointed out that typical Santacrucian mammals do occur in slightly older inland horizons, indicating that the Santacrucian SALMA probably extends to somewhat earlier ages.
Two other post-Colhuehuapian and pre-Santacrucian faunal intervals have also been proposed since the beginning of the 20th century: The Pinturan fauna Pinturan association sensu Kramarz and Bellosi, was recognized in elements of the old 'Astrapothericulan' fauna of Ameghinoa composite fossil assemblage recovered in the headwaters of the Pinturas River, lacking an accurate geographic and stratigraphic position Ameghino, Kramarz and Bellosi restricted the Pinturan association to fossils collected exclusively from the lower and middle successions of the Pinturas Formation Bown and Larriestra, ; Bown and Fleagle, ; Fig.
While most researchers have traditionally considered the Pinturas 'Astrapoth-ericulan' fossils to be simply a local Santacrucian age fauna Pascual and Odreman Rivas, ; Marshall et al.
Considering the available information, Kramarz et al. Ameghino stated that the most important horizons of these fauna were at Karaiken, at the northeastern border of Lago Argentino Fig. Kraglievich renamed this stage as the 'Karaikense', also including the 'Astrapothericulan' fauna within it.
While initially proposed as a pre-Santacrucian transitional fauna Ameghino; Simpson,the majority of subsequent researchers also considered the 'Notohippidian' fauna as simply a local assemblage of basal Santacrucian taxa Feruglio, b; Pascual and Odreman Rivas, ; Marshall and Pascual, ; Marshall et al. Furque and Camacho placed all these localities within the westernmost inland facies of the Santa Cruz Formation.
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In Chile, almost all recorded Pansantacrucian faunas have been assigned indiscriminately to the Santacrucian SALMA, an assertion that undoubtedly requires a detailed revision. These faunas include from north to south: Recently, Kramarz et al. Similarly, Chick et al.
Especially dramatic is the situation of the faunas in Magallanes, which have never been investigated in detail and are only known through poorly recorded casual findings Hemmer, a; Simpson, ; Marshall and Salinas, b. We provide a detailed lithostratigraphic section, an interpretation of the depositional environment, direct age constraints, and a preliminary description of the vertebrate fossil content, with some comments on its biostratigraphic and geochronologic importance.
Previous work and regional stratigraphy Recent field campaigns have shown that the Cenozoic and almost surely the latest Cretaceous stratigraphic succession in Sierra Baguales mirrors the sequence located south of Lago Argentino, in Argentina, allowing a direct correlation of those better known units with the Chilean succession. Moreover, the Sierra Baguales strata clearly represent the continuity of these units across the international border, which presents an opportunity to clarify and unify the diverse nomenclature used for the same stratigraphic units both within and between the two countries Table 1.
It is here reconsidered and correlated with the Man Aike Formation of southwestern Argentina Piatnitzky, ; Feruglio, ; Furque, ; Marenssi et al.
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As a general rule in lithostratigraphy, the name first given to a unit has preference over names assigned later, unless duplicated in other, different units, so that the name Man Aike Formation should take preference in this case. The latter is overlain by continental deposits previously referred to as the Las Flores Formation Cecioni, ; Le Roux et al. As Cecioni mentioned the presence of plant fossils, in particular Nothofagus, Hoffstetter et al.
A recently published age of In Sierra Baguales, this marine unit overlies the La Cumbre Sill and contains a diverse assemblage of marine invertebrates including facies with oyster reefs, soft-bottom bivalves, gastropods, and crab fossils. As this unit was previously not formally recognised in the area, the name Estancia 25 de Mayo Formation is retained here. Nevertheless, besides the Palomares Formation other assumed Early Miocene deposits have been considered as temporal and stratigraphic equivalents of the Santa Cruz Formation in Magallanes.
Except for the El Salto Formation, none of these units has yet been dated radiometrically, and their paleontological content is virtually unknown. Although Marshall and Salinas proposed a direct correlation between the El Salto and Palomares Formations with the Los Dos Mellizos and Bon Accord Members of the Santa Cruz Formation, respectively Marshall and Salinas bthe available evidence is presently inconclusive to support this assumption.
The lack of detailed lithostratigraphic studies in the Magellanian units coupled with the dubious taxonomic assignments given to the few described vertebrate fossils precludes a definitive conclusion about the relationships between those units. Future work in the eastern part of the Magallanes Region is required to clarify these suggested correlations.
We measured a 91 m thick stratigraphic section Fig.
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True thicknesses rounded to the nearest 10 cm were determined with a tape measure and Brunton compass, applying corrections incorporating the traverse orientation, slope angle and spatial orientation of the strata. The following subdivision from bottom to top of section is generally based on fining-upward successions with prominent basal sandstones or conglomerates. Many minor fining-upward cycles are present, but due to the nature of the outcrops are not always clearly exposed.
Location of Sierra Baguales and places mentioned in text. Measured lithostratigraphic column of the basal part of the Santa Cruz Formation. Unit 1 has a total thickness of Overlying an erosional contact at the base is a 0. The sandstone is poorly sorted with sub-rounded chert clasts together with clay pellets and lenses. It grades into a 1. Overlying this sub-unit with an erosional contact is a low-angle and trough cross-bedded conglomerate with quartz and chert clasts up to 2 cm in diameter, grading upward into high-angle cross-bedded conglomerate with a medium-grained sandstone matrix.
This fining-upward sub-unit is 0. It is followed by a 0. Above this sub-unit is a 0. At the top of unit 1 is a coarse-grained sandstone with epsilon cross-lamination and scattered clasts up to 1 cm in diameter, reaching a thickness of 0. The troughs in this basal, sandy part of unit 1 are up to 3 m wide, indicating currents generally flowing to the north-northeast, but varying between northwest and east.
This sandstone package grades into a 19 m thick covered interval probably consisting of mudstone. The top of unit 1 reaches a total thickness of 8. It has intercalations of light brown siltstone beds with a clay-rich matrix. Unit 2 has an erosional basal contact overlain by a 0. Scoyenia trace fossils within the sandstone consist of round, vertical tubes mm in diameter Skolithos Haldeman,as well as sinuous, short tubes along bedding planes Planolites Nicholson, The sandstone fines upward into a 1.
This is followed by greenish grey mudstone with dispersed clasts and vertebrate fragments, with a thickness of 9. The total thickness of unit 2 is Unit 3, with a total thickness of The conglomerate fines upward into 1. This sandstone grades into a 9. Unit 4 starts with a 1. It grades upward into a 3. Locally, a small lens up to 0. The unit is capped by a 1. Vertebrate fragments are present throughout unit 4, which has a total thickness of Unit 5 is 8.
Soft-weathering concretions within this sandstone contain mm-thick, upward-branching traces probably due to hymenopterids. This sandstone grades into a 4. Unit 6 has an erosional basal contact and a total thickness of 4.
It commences with a 0. High-angle planar and trough cross-bedding are prominent. This bed fines upward into a 0.
This is cut by a reddish, medium-grained sandstone with scattered clasts up to 0. It has a thickness of 0. It is overlain with an erosional contact by sub-unit 6c, a very coarse to coarse, poorly sorted, fining-upward sandstone with scattered, subrounded clasts and low-angle planar cross-lamination, with a thickness of 0. Sub-unit 6d is a 0. Sub-unit 6e is a 0. It grades upward into a 0.
This mudstone grades into light greyish green mudstone reaching a thickness of 1. Unit 8 consists of yellowish, medium- to coarsegrained, poorly sorted sandstone with a clay-rich matrix.
It has a preserved thickness of 1. Higher up on Cerro Cono, the Santa Cruz Formation is unconformably overlain by Plio-Pleistocene basalts, which form the watershed and frontier between Chile and Argentina in this area Fig.
Sandstone and conglomerate petrography Two thin sections were made of a conglomerate and pebbly sandstone, from units 1 and 5, respectively. Zircons were separated from the same samples for U-Pb dating. The conglomerate sample ZRLF, unit 1 consists of clast-supported, sub- to well-rounded pebbles up to 60 mm in diameter in a coarse to very coarse sandstone matrix. There is very little cement which is composed of Si, where presentso that the sample has a high porosity.
The pebbles are composed of quartzite with sutured grain contacts, pure quartz apparently derived from a porphyritic rhyolite, and devitrified glass palagonite with a spherulitic texture. The pebbly sandstone sample ZRLF, unit 5 is very poorly sorted with sub-angular grains, classifying as a lithic arkose. Pebbles are up to 60 mm in diameter, including fine-grained, well-sorted quartz wacke, metamorphic quartzite with sutured contacts, and chert.
The medium- to very coarse-grained sand fraction contains quartz, plagioclase with Karlsbad twins, volcanic rock fragments with plagioclase laths, clinopyroxene including titanaugiteand rare, untwinned and slightly weathered K-feldspar.
The fresh appearance of the plagioclase and volcanic fragments, together with the presence of pyroxene, suggest a relatively short distance of transport from a tectonically active source area rich in newly formed basalts. Like the conglomerate, this rock is also very porous, indicating a high-energy environment where finer sediments such as clay could not settle out. Some pores have a lining or are filled with well-developed zeolite crystals, suggesting low-grade metamorphism.
Depositional environment There can be little doubt that the Santa Cruz Formation in this area was deposited in a continental, fluvial environment, as indicated by the abundance of terrestrial vertebrate fragments, Scoyenia including probable hymenopterid traces, multi-coloured often reddishblocky-weathering mudstones Fig.
Typical sedimentary structures in sandstones of the Santa Crus Formation. Although fossil leaves and wood are absent or at least very rare in the Santa Cruz Formation, a fairly large diversity of microfossil remains have been found, amongst others arthropod appendages and butterfly wing scales, as well as fungi and acritarchs.
Normally, pollen and spores are scarce in oxidized deposits Traverse,but in spite of this we have identified a mixture of herbaceous species, shrubs, tree ferns, and trees, including the families Poaceae Barnhart,Asteraceae Berchtold and Presl,Chenopodiaceae Ventenat,Proteaceae De Jussieu,Nothofagaceae Kuprianova,Podocarpaceae Endlicher,Onagraceae De Ju-ssieu,Myrtaceae De Jussieu,and Cyatheaceae KaulfuB, The lenticular nature of the sandstones, their fine to medium grain-size, relatively small-scale fining-upward cycles, and the presence of epsilon cross-lamination in places suggest deposition on point bars in slightly meandering river channels, as supported by the comparatively thick overbank mudstones.
The Skolithos ichnofacies Seilacher, is normally considered to represent shallow marine deposits, but Skolithos is also characteristic of the shore zones of ephemeral lakes and river f loodplains Frey et al. Paleocurrent directions were recorded wherever possible, using high-angle planar and trough cross-lamination Fig. The measurements were tilt-corrected by rotating the strikes and dips of the containing strata to the horizontal, using the spreadsheet program of Le Roux Vector mean, magnitude and sinuosity values were subsequently calculated according to the methodology of Le Roux Nevertheless, the first and only mention on the occurrence of fossil mammals in the area was made by Marshall and Salinas bbased on a few fragmentary specimens held in the private collection of the late Mr.
Oscar Vidal, at that time the owner of the Estancia La Cumbre. In that contribution, Marshall and Salinas identified and figured the remains of an astrapotheriid ungulate referred to as Astrapotherium magnumand part of the maxillary of a 'notohippine' 'Notohippidae' considered as an unknown ungulate by the authors fossil identified by E.
Bostelmann based on figure 13 of Marshall and Salinas, b. During the last two seasons we collected fossil vertebrates in the Santa Cruz Formation on the southern slopes of Cerro Cono, in a small area of about 0. All the remains were located between the 1, and 1, m altitude line, forming discrete patches in exposed ravines and buttes, of which the most relevant is Morro Bayo Figs.
The materials are mostly composed of isolated pieces bone fragments, teeth, osteoderms, vertebraeand associated cranial and postcranial elements. Most of the bones were collected on surface having been eroded from soft mudstone, thus lacking a precise stratigraphic position, although field work has shown their occurrence in all the exposed sedimentary units within the column units 1 to 8.
A few disarticulated but associated elements were also exhumed in situ from units 5 to 8, including maxillary and mandibular fragments, aggregated teeth, and cranial-postcranial portions.
Morro Bayo, one of the most prominent sites with fossil vertebrates in the Santa cruz Formation al Sierra Baguales. Generally speaking, the bones present two distinct types of preservation.
The vast majority show varied grades of integrity, with angular borders and little mechanical attrition and weathering. However, both types of preservation were detected in remains assigned to the most commonly recovered species within the column, leading us to suppose that the provenance of all the materials was relatively proximal.
That took time so they organized demonstrations carrying large posters encouraging people to learn the universal language and to sign the petitions About the same time, in the middle of the block was marching a huge demonstration of people holding posters reading "Learn Esperanto", "Support the Universal language", "Esperanto the language of hope and expectation", "Esperanto the bond for international communication" and so on, and many "Sign the petitions".
I will never forget that rich-poor, sad-glad parade and among all these people stood two fiery red tramway cars waiting on their opposite lanes and also a few doroszkas with their horses squeezed in between. Such a sight it was. Later a few blocks were changed from Dzika Street to Dr.
Zamenhofa Street and a nice monument was erected there with his name and his invention inscribed on it, to honor his memory. The number of speakers grew rapidly over the next few decades, at first primarily in the Russian Empire and Central Europe, then in other parts of Europe, the Americas, China, and Japan. In the early years, speakers of Esperanto kept in contact primarily through correspondence and periodicals, but in the first world congress of Esperanto speakers was held in Boulogne-sur-MerFrance.
Since then world congresses have been held in different countries every year, except during the two World Wars. Since the Second World War, they have been attended by an average of more than people and up to people. Zamenhof's name for the language was simply Internacia Lingvo "International Language". There was a proposal to make Esperanto its official language.
However, neither Belgium nor Prussia now within Germany had ever surrendered its original claim to it.
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AroundGermany in particular was taking a more aggressive stance towards the territory and was accused of sabotage and of obstructing the administrative process in order to force the issue. It was the First World War, however, that was the catalyst that brought about the end of neutrality.
On 4 AugustGermany invaded Belgium, leaving Moresnet at first "an oasis in a desert of destruction". Hanotaux did not like how the French language was losing its position as the international language and saw Esperanto as a threat, effectively wielding his veto power to block the decision. However, two years later, the League recommended that its member states include Esperanto in their educational curricula. For this reason, many people see the s as the heyday of the Esperanto movement.
Anarchism as a political movement was very supportive during this time of anationalism as well as of the Esperanto language. The situation was especially pronounced in Nazi Germany, Francoist Spain up until the s, and in the Soviet Union from to In Nazi Germany, there was a motivation to forbid Esperanto because Zamenhof was Jewish, and due to the internationalist nature of Esperanto, which was perceived as "Bolshevist".
In his work, Mein Kampf, Adolf Hitler specifically mentioned Esperanto as an example of a language that could be used by an international Jewish conspiracy once they achieved world domination.