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ABRSM's Grade 3 Piano syllabus. Our music exams for Piano consist of three pieces, chosen by the candidate from the appropriate lists in the current syllabus, . Piano Time is a multitouch piano with 36 visible keys and selectable octaves. Piano Time supports multitouch screen, keyboard, mouse, and midi contoller input. . Release date Access your Internet connection . NEW Surface Pro 6 · NEW Surface Laptop 2 · NEW Surface Go · Xbox One X · Xbox One S · VR & mixed. KEEP UP TO DATE syllabus and for the latest information about our Piano exams. 2. Contents. Trinity accepts entries for its exams on the condition that candidates conform 95 / Join us online .. with the right hand playing one octave.
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How much does a certificate program cost? This piece fits into a fixed slot behind the key and prevents the key from moving from side to side as it moves up and down. When the front end of the key is pushed down by the finger, the back end rises, and the brass blade, called a tangent, strikes the strings which in most clavichords are arranged in pairscausing them to vibrate. To the left of the tangent a strip of cloth is woven between the strings. When the key is struck, only the portion of the strings to the right of the tangent—i.
As soon as the key is released, the tangent falls away from the strings, which are then entirely silenced by the cloth. Because the sounding portion of each string is the segment between tangent and bridge, the tangent serves not only to set the strings in vibration but also to determine their sounding length. Thus, a series of tangents striking a given pair of strings at different points will produce a series of different notes, and all the earliest clavichords were designed to take advantage of this fact.
Making a single pair of strings serve several keys had two important disadvantages. Because each pair of strings can sound only one note at a time, it is impossible to play any two notes sounded from the same strings simultaneously, making it impossible to play certain chords.
Furthermore, an unpleasant clanking sound is likely to result if the performer attempts legato playing of successive notes sounded from the same strings, making it necessary to play in a semidetached fashion. As early as the time of Arnaut of Zwolle, the first of these disadvantages was minimized by allowing no more than four keys to sound from the same pair of strings and by carefully choosing the points at which such groups of four keys were placed, so that only dissonant chords would be unplayable.
The second problem could be solved only when a maximum of two keys were served by the same strings, so that each natural key shared its strings only with the sharp or flat next to it. Eventually, however, it was felt necessary to be able to play in all tonalities without restrictions either of style of playing or in the use of dissonant chords, and clavichords began to be built with one pair of strings for each key.
Fretted clavichords were being made well into the s; they had fewer strings to go out of tune, and the smaller number of strings permitted all the keys to be shorter and more equal in length, giving the instrument a superior touch.
In addition, the smaller number of strings imposed a smaller downward force on the soundboard, resulting in a brighter, clearer tone. Tone quality The greatest disadvantage of the clavichord is its extremely soft tone. Because it arises directly from the way in which the sound of the instrument is produced, this disadvantage cannot readily be overcome.
It is impossible to impart very much energy to a string by striking it at one end it is for this reason that a guitarist makes less sound when he strikes the strings against the fingerboard with his left hand than when he plucks them with his right, even though the pitches produced are the same. In compensation, the clavichordist alone of all keyboard-instrument players has control over a note once it has been struck.
As long as a note is sounding, he has contact with the string through the tangent and key, and by changing his pressure on the key he can vary the pitch of the note, produce a controlled vibrato, or even create the illusion of prolonging or swelling the tone.
Although the maximum loudness of which a clavichord is capable is not great, its softest pianissimo is very soft indeed, and the clavichordist controls an infinite number of gradations in loudness between these two extremes.
As a result of this touch sensitivity, the clavichord was highly valued as a teaching and practice instrument. In addition, its relative cheapness made it the normal domestic keyboard instrument in Germany, Iberia, and Scandinavia. The quiet tone of the clavichord made it impractical to use the instrument in ensemble music, except for providing a discreet accompaniment for a flutist or a singer.
Although much of the solo keyboard music of the 16th—18th centuries can be played on the clavichord, it cannot be stated that much of it before the latter part of the 18th century was especially composed with the clavichord in mind. At that time, however, the clavichord experienced a great revival in Germany, and music composed with its singing tone and unique capabilities of dynamic shading and vibrato was written for it by such masters as Carl Philip Emanuel Bach — Clavichords continued to be made in Germany and Scandinavia well into the 19th century, long after the piano was popular.
Indeed, many instrument makers built both clavichords and pianos and harpsichords as well. The clavichord owes its modest modern revival in the United Kingdom and America largely to the efforts of Arnold Dolmetschwho began building clavichords and performing on them in public in the s. Both his style of playing the clavichord and the design of his instruments were influential for a long period.
Today, however, increasing numbers of clavichord makers and players are exploring earlier forms of the instrument. Principle of operation Plucking mechanism The sound of the wing-shaped harpsichord and its smaller rectangular, triangular, or polygonal relatives, the spinet and virginal, is produced by plucking their strings. The plucking mechanism, called a jackrests on the key and consists of a narrow slip of wood with two slots cut into its top. The larger slot holds a pivoted tongue from which protrudes the quill, plastic, or leather plectrum that does the actual plucking; the smaller slot holds a piece of cloth that rests on the string and silences it when the key is not depressed.
When the harpsichordist pushes down on a key, the back end rises, lifting the jack and forcing the plectrum past the string, plucking it. When he releases the key, the jack falls, and when the plectrum touches the string on the way down, it forces the pivoted tongue backward so that the plectrum can pass the string again without plucking it.
Once the plectrum has passed beneath the string, a light spring made of bristle or metal pushes the tongue forward again. Finally, when the key is completely at rest, the cloth damper touches the string, silencing it. A wooden bar, padded on its underside, is placed over the jacks. The purpose of this bar is to prevent the jacks from flying out of the instrument and to limit the depth to which the keys can be depressed. Although slight variations in loudness and timbreor tone colour, can be obtained by differences in the firmness with which the harpsichordist depresses the keys, no sustained crescendos are obtainable by the action of the fingers alone.
For this reason, most harpsichords made since about have had at least two strings and two jacks for each key. Each can be engaged or disengaged at will by a slight shift of the uppermost of two slotted guides through which the jacks pass. Moving the guide in one direction brings its entire row of jacks close enough to the strings for the plectra to pluck them; moving the guide in the opposite direction takes the jacks far enough from the strings so that the plectra cannot reach them.
Two rows of jacks can provide three different levels of loudness or three differing tone colours, depending on whether the performer uses each row separately or both together.
Two- manual instruments Even given two rows of jacks, it would not ordinarily be possible to produce the rapid changes in loudness required for pieces in echo style, for example, or to play loudly with one hand while providing a soft accompaniment with the other.
It then becomes possible to play loudly on one keyboard and softly on the other, either simultaneously or in rapid alternation. Two-manual harpsichords of this kind were invented at some point before in Flanders and gradually became known throughout the rest of Europe during the 17th century.
These instruments commonly had three sets of strings, two unison sets at normal pitch called eight-foot pitch because the low C at this pitch is produced by an organ pipe eight feet long and a third set of shorter strings tuned an octave higher, or at four-foot pitch; this shorter set passed over its own bridge and was fastened to pins driven through the soundboard into a rail fixed to its underside.
There were three rows of jacks. The front row plucked one set of unison strings and was made in such a way that it would be moved by the keys of both the upper and the lower keyboards.
Both the middle and back rows operated from the lower manual only; the second row plucked the second set of unison strings, and the back row plucked the octave strings. For most purposes a one-manual harpsichord sufficed: For this reason, as well as because of their lower price, the old harpsichord makers built far more single-manual instruments than doubles, and many more singles survive today.
Couplers There is, however, one type of music that can only be played on a two-manual instrument. The parts in such pieces cannot be distinguished when played on a single manual, and they cannot even be played on two manuals if the manuals are not completely independent. For example, if a note is already being held on the lower manual, it cannot be restruck on the upper manual when the lower manual lifts the upper-manual jacks.
The solution to this problem was found in France in the s. Instead of providing the upper-manual jacks with an extension that reached down to the keys of the lower manual, they were made to rest entirely on the upper-manual keys; the lower-manual keys were then fitted with small upright pieces of wood called coupler dogs, which reached upward toward the underside of the upper-manual keys.
When it was pushed into the instrument, the coupler dogs were positioned below the back ends of upper-manual keys. As a result, when any lower-manual key was pushed down and its back end rose, the coupler dog would push up on the underside of the corresponding upper-manual key, lifting its jack as well. The coupler dogs then passed slightly beyond the ends of the upper-manual keys, so that they were not lifted when the lower-manual keys were depressed.
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This difference depends on the distance along the string at which it is plucked. The closer the plucking point is to the end of a string, the brighter is the sound; the farther away from the end that a string is plucked, the fuller and rounder the tone becomes, until one approaches the centre; plucking near the centre of a string produces a sweet, flutey, but somewhat hollow sound.
In order to emphasize the difference in tone colours produced by the two rows of unison jacks, French harpsichord builders put the row of octave jacks between them, thereby increasing the distance between the two unison plucking points and the difference in tone of the two unison registers. Special effects A set of jacks plucking very close to the end of the string yields a very brassy, nasal sound.
This type of register, called a lute stop, was first used in Germany in the 16th century and later spread to Flanders and to England, where it was added to the normal three registers on two-manual instruments. It did not have its own set of strings but, rather, plucked those of one of the existing unison registers. In England the lute stop plucked the same set of strings as the set of jacks operated by both keyboards; but, because the lute-stop jacks rested only on the upper-manual keys, they could also be used to provide a completely independent register on the upper manual.
Many harpsichords of all countries were also equipped with a buff stop sometimes also called a lute stopa device that presses pieces of soft leather against one of the sets of unison strings, producing a muted, pizzicato tone. In Germany in the 18th century, harpsichords were made with still more strings and jacks for each key.Major Scales: How to Play C Major Scale Two Octaves on Piano (Right and Left hand)
Some had three unison strings in addition to an octave string; some had two unisons, an octave, and a suboctave or foot register; and some even had a 2-foot register, with very short strings tuned two octaves above the unisons.
Harpsichords with three keyboards were apparently built throughout the 17th and 18th centuries, although only one authentic three-manual harpsichord is known today. It should be emphasized, however, that the harpsichord of the 16th—18th centuries normally had only one or two keyboards and only two or three sets of strings and jacks per note.
In the 16th and early 17th centuries, one-manual instruments usually had only two registers either two unisons or a unison and an octave with or without a buff stop; in the second half of the 17th century a second unison register became common, increasing the number of jacks and strings to three per note.
Two-manual instruments, likewise, had no more than three sets of strings two unisons and an octave and three sets of jacks throughout the 17th century.
In the 18th century, a fourth row of jacks was sometimes added. Until the last half of the 18th century, it was usually possible to change registers only by moving knobs at the side of the instrument or above the keyboards, which could be done only when one hand or the other was not playing. This fact and the surviving written evidence suggests that the harpsichordists of earlier times changed registers relatively infrequently, avoiding monotony of sound by relying on variations of touch and the changes of texture and pitch level written into the music.
History The harpsichord may have evolved from devices invented by medical astrologers for the purpose of investigating the effects of cosmic musical harmonies on the human body.
The wing-shaped instrument was described by Arnaut of Zwolle in the midth century and was apparently known throughout Europe by the end of the century, although no 15th-century examples have survived.
The harpsichords depicted in sculptures, paintings, and miniatures of the period all appear to be shorter and to have thicker cases than the earliest surviving 16th-century examples, all of which are Italian and are constructed of very thin cypress.
Italy The thin-cased style of harpsichord construction appears to have been developed in Italy aboutand it rapidly influenced the design of harpsichords throughout the rest of Europe. The comparatively short strings imposed a relatively low tension on the case of the Italian harpsichord, allowing it to hold up with so light a structure.
In general, Italian harpsichords had only one keyboard with two rows of jacks and two strings tuned in unison or unison and octave. The fragile Italian instruments were normally housed in thick outer cases of softwood, which were either painted or covered with stamped leather.
The cases, in turn, rested on separate legs or elaborate stands. The tone of these lightly constructed instruments is surprisingly loud and penetrating, making them ideal as accompanying instruments in an orchestra and suiting them perfectly to the rattling scale passages typical of Italian harpsichord music. In the s in Flanders, however, this type of instrument was replaced by still another design, which ultimately dominated all northern European harpsichord making. Because the longer strings made it unfeasible to double the string length for each octave below middle C, harpsichords of the newer Flemish design have less gracefully curved bentsides and wider tails than either Italian harpsichords or the intermediate instruments built elsewhere north of the Alps.
The name most often associated with Flemish harpsichord building is that of the Ruckers family, which for four generations from about to dominated Flemish harpsichord making and whose instruments were exported to all parts of Europe—one was even shipped as far as Peru.
At first sight, Ruckers harpsichords appear crude compared to their Italian counterparts, and their thick softwood cases give the impression of being clumsily cobbled together on the inside.
Nonetheless, the tone of unaltered or properly restored examples is extraordinarily good, and it is easy to see why Ruckers instruments were so highly prized that a lively business in making forgeries of them flourished in the 18th century.