Crotal bells - ukdfd
Roman bell with rectangular cross-section and corner feet HAMP-ADCEE3 Roman bells of other shapes Clarke points out that simple hemispherical and conical bells are known from both Roman and post-Roman contexts and considers unstratified examples of these as undatable.
Concentric line decoration and a circular cross-section can be found on bells from Roman contexts e. Most English or Welsh finds of similar bells, however, can be recorded as probably Roman.
Early-medieval bells 5th- to 8th-century bells Both of the bells illustrated in MacGregor and Bolick are likely to be Roman in date. A small 28mm high copper-alloy bell with circular base, large semi-circular loop and iron chain and clapper was found in the early 7th-century grave of Mound 1 at Sutton Hoo Bruce-Mitford So far we have no similar bells on the PAS database, so it may be an import. Both may be Continental imports of the 5th to 8th centuries. Concentric lines and a circular cross-section in other words, a conical shape can be found on 7th- to 8th-century Scottish bells Schoenfelder and Richardsas well as bells from Roman contexts e.
Bells stratified in contexts of the late 9th to late 11th centuries are characterised by integral loops of various shapes, hexagonal cross-sections and straight tapering sides.
The hexagonal facets may be slightly concave in cross-section and the lower edge may be scalloped, with the lower corners sometimes having feet. Ring-and-dot decoration is frequently found. The height range appears to be c. At the moment we are recording these openwork conical bells with a broad period of Roman, as this seems the most likely date. Concentric lines and a circular cross-section i.
Medieval and post-medieval bells Medieval and post-medieval bells include a large number of spherical examples, either cast or made from sheet. Fragments of larger cast bells can also be found, but are difficult to distinguish from cast copper-alloy vessels. They are very common finds because they are robust and easily recognised. Make sure that these are recorded with the object type BELL.
Well dated examples are scarce, but it seems that these were in use for many centuries with slow tiny changes in detail. Because of this, we need to carefully describe the shape of the loop externally and internallythe number and shape of the sound holes, the slot, the seam or ridge between the two halves and any decoration.
Other cast copper-alloy bells There is a small group of distinctive medieval bells that are broadly spherical, but with an openwork lower half and therefore sounded by a clapper rather than a pea.
The upper half has eight slightly flattened surfaces, four of which have shields of arms as decoration. The arms have received several interpretations, but are thought to be those of Edmund, 2nd Early of Cornwall, showing a double-headed eagle referring to his claim to the Holy Roman Empire after his father was elected King of this in impaled with three chevrons, the arms of his wife Margaret de Clare.
They married inmaking this the earliest possible date for these bells. As human dress accessories they were worn on belts, collars or sashes; there is a useful short chapter on medieval examples in Egan and Pritchard They appear to come into use on human dress in the 14th century in Winchester Biddleand the late 14th century in London Egan and Pritchard, although they were apparently in use as early as the late 13th century on animal harness Egan and Pritchard, with examples from ceramic period 9, c.
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